List of technologies demonstrated during previous year and popularized during 2014-15 and recommended for large scale adoption in the district.
|S.N.||Crop/Enterprise||Thematic Area*||Technology Demonstrated||Details of popularization methods suggested to the Extension system||Horizontal spread of technology|
|Groundnut||Varietal evaluation and IDM||Line sowing, Improved variety, Seed treatment, Sulphur application||Demonstration , Training, Gosthies and Media||No. of Villages : 76
No. of Farmers : 5706
Area (ha) : 2733
|Mungbean||Varietal evaluation||Line sowing, Improved variety (Samrat), Seed treatment, Rhizobium culture||Demonstration , Training, Gosthies and Media||No. of Villages : 79
No. of Farmers : 4340
Area (ha) : 3170
|Mungbean||Inter cropping with summer pigeon pea||Line sowing, Improved variety (Moong-Samrat and Pigeon pea-UPAS-120), Seed treatment, Rhizobium culture||Demonstration , Training, Gosthies and Media||No. of Villages : 5
No. of Farmers : 56
Area (ha) : 6
|C||Other than oilseed and pulses|
|Summer Maize||Varietal Evaluation||Hybrid variety||Demonstration and Training||No. of Villages : 201
No. of Farmers : 26319
Area (ha) : 6725
|Potato||IDM||Seed treatment with Trichoderma||Demonstration and Training||No. of Villages : 83
No. of Farmers : 1760
Area (ha) : 309
|Wheat||Varietal Evaluation||Improved variety (Halna and Unnat Halna)||Demonstration and Training||No. of Villages : 45
No. of Farmers : 1860
Area (ha) : 330
|Wheat||Varietal Evaluation||Improved variety Mahi and Shatabdi||Demonstration and Training||No. of Villages : 9
No. of Farmers : 53
Area (ha) : 8.3
|Summer Tomato||Varietal Evaluation||Hybrid and (In determent variety)||Demonstration and Training||No. of Villages : 19
No. of Farmers : 372
Area (ha) : 82
|Kharif Onion||IDM||Improved variety (N-53), Seed treatment with Trichoderma and INM||Demonstration, Training and Media Coverage||No. of Villages : 9
No. of Farmers : 98
Area (ha) : 15.7
Name of Technology
Introduction of Kharif onion for higher income and diversification During the year 2007 four farmers of village Pachpukhara of block Jalalabad were started cultivation onion in kharif with the help of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannauj. Technology of nursery growing, weed management, uprooting of bulbs and cultivation techniques were provided to the farmers.
Characters of Technology
Seeds of onion variety N-53 @ 18-20 kg were sown in the nursery in the first week of March, 2007. After 60 days, bulbs were up - rooted after irrigation before 4-5 days. It was kept in shade unto planting. After the peak period of rains, the fields were started to prepare. Onion bulbs were sown at a distance of 20 x 15 cm. Inter culture operation were adopted at 20-25 and 40-45 days after planting. Irrigations were given according to the need. Crop was fertilized @ 120:60:80 kg NPK per ha. When bulbs were achieved proper size.
Crop was started to harvest from 15 October to 15 November. The yield of bulbs was recorded 144.7 to 176.7 q/ha. After harvesting, potato crop was sown by the farmer in the same field.
Table 1 : Production and economics of the onion under demonstration
|Year||No. of Farmers||Area (ha)||Av.Yield (q/ha)||Gross Cost (Rs/ha)||Grass Return (Rs/ha)||Net Return (Rs/ha)||BCR|
Kharif onion was found economic, feasible and compatible crop, so the farmers have adopted this very easily. When the crop was compared with other existing crops as well as cropping systems, it is found more economic in terms of gross and net returns (Table 2).
Table 2 : Production and economics of cropping systems (2014-15
|Cropping System||Yield (q/ha)||Potato Equivalent||Gross Cost (Rs)||Gross Return (Rs)||Net Return (Rs.)||BCR|
|Maize-Potato-Maize||28.3 + 295.3 + 63.8||452.30||117069||326440||209371||2.8|
|Maize-Potato-Wheat||31.0 + 272.0 + 48.2||418.01||118129||305410||187281||2.6|
|Onion-Potato-Maize||154.6 + 285.3 + 58.4||643.41||165769||507530||341761||3.1|
Market Rate : Maize Rs. 1300/q, Potato Rs. 700/q, Wheat 1550/q, Onion Rs. 1500/q
Area Expansion : Kharif onion is popularizing. Number of cultivators and area is progressively increasing. Kahrif onion based system is also economically viable. The most popular maize -potato –maize system has become less economical when compared to onion- potato-maize systems. Now, it is cultivated by 167 farmers of 17 villages.
|Year||No. of Village||No. of Farmers||Area (ha)|
Sunflower was the major summer crop of the district Kannauj which was cultivated after harvest of potato in the month of February. It was cultivated on 14,500 ha area with lesser productivity 10.4 q/ha. Slowly and slowly the yield and income from the crops was started to reduce. This resulted narrow cultivation cost and benefit ratio. Finally, sunflower was shifted by summer maize. During January 2007, scientists of the Krishi Vigyan Kendra interacted with the Territory Business Lead of Pioneer Hybrids International seeds, Pvt. Ltd. He told about the summer maize variety 31Y45 having yield potential of 70-80 q/ha and 110 days maturity.
Character of Technology
Farmers of Niwajpur and Digsara villages of Kannauj district were selected for demonstration of same variety. Summer maize variety 31Y45 was sown in Mid February to Mid March, 2007on 8 ha area of 12 farmers. The seeds were sown @ 20 kg/ha at the spacing of 60x20 cm. Crop was fertilized @ 120:60:60 kg NPK and 25 kg zinc sulphate. Weeding, irrigation, insect-pest control and other practices were advised to do according to kharif maize. To insure high yield, sufficient moisture was maintained during crops period especially at the time of tasseling and cob formation stages. Bumper crop was new experience for farmers and scientists which yielded up to 78.4q/ha grain yield. Several extension activities like field days, gosthies, media coverage, etc. were organized for greater adoption of technology.
Production, Productivity and Economics
Most of the area is under two varieties namely 31Y45 and DKC-9108. Since 2007 to 2013, the average productivity under demonstration was recorded up to 73.7 q/ha. However, the average yield of sunflower was not more than 18 q/ha giving Rs. 14,500/ha only as net profit which is very less in comparison to summer maize.
Table : Area, production and economics of summer maize
|Year||Area Under District (ha)||Av. Yield (q/ha)||Gross Cost (Rs/ ha)||Gross Returns (Rs/ha)||Net Income (Rs/ha)||C : B ratio|
Suitability in the existing cropping system
Maize-potato-sunflower converted into maize-potato-maize. There is no shift/ change in the area of the major crop potato. Stalks/residues of summer maize are also incorporated into the soil to improve the soil fertility.
Now, the area has reached to 6130 ha with huge number of farmers. The encouraging results have also spread summer maize in the districts of Central Plain Zone and South-Western Semi-Arid Zone of Uttar Pradesh.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable cash crop. Globally it occupies the fourth place among food crops after rice, wheat and maize. The total area under potato cultivation in India is about 1.99 million hectare with total production of 45.34 million tones and average productivity of 22.78 q/ha. The total area under potato in Uttar Prades state is about 6,53,000 hectares with the total production of 1.88 million tonnes and an average yield of 288.1 q/ha.
Potato is grown under maize-potato-wheat, maize-potato-maize, green manure-potato-potato-mungbean cropping system in district Kannauj and has occupied more than 45 thousand ha area with average productivity of 254.28 q/ha. The crop suffers from large number of soil and seed borne diseases among which common scab caused by Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waksman & Henrici is the most common soil and seed born disease in most of the potato growing regions. It causes 5-60 per cent economic losses depending on the disease severity and location. Although, the disease does not very much affect the yield quantitatively but deteriorate the quality and acceptability of tubers for seed and adversely affect the market price of the potatoes. Potato scab caused by Streptomyces scabies is appears on tubers in the form of shallow or superficial and deep or pitted lesions and makes the appearance unpleasing results low price of the crop. Streptomyces scabies is a saprophyte that can survive for long periods on decaying soil organic matter in the absence of hosts. Susceptibility to S. scabies increases from about pH 5.2 to an optimum of between 6.0 and 7.5. The pathogens enter through wounds, lenticels, or directly through the skin of young developing tubers and stimulate the growth of corky tissue. Lesions expand as the tubers expand. The pathogen produces spores in the lesions. Tubers are susceptible as soon as they are formed. Dry soil conditions during this period reduce competition and can serve to encourage infection by the pathogens. Scab symptoms are most notable at harvest or later in the season.
This disease has affected more than 50 per cent area of the district with 5-60 per cent severity and average loss of Rs. 20-25 thousand / ha. The scientists of the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannauj organized trainings, OFTs, demonstrations and gosthis in adopted villages to mitigate the disease through Trichoderma spp. In this technology soil is enriched with Trichoderma spp. @ 2.5 kg /ha after 15 days composing in the 200 kg well rotted FYM and mixed in soil at the time of field preparation and seeds were also treated @ 10g/kg seed. It was found that seed treatment with bio-agent formulation (10g/kg seed) was able to increase the seed germination, root and shoot length and seedling vigour over untreated ones. Trichoderma spp., are free-living fungi that are common in soil and root ecosystems. They are highly interactive in root, soil and foliar environments. It produces variety of compounds that induce localized or systemic resistance responses in plants. Trichoderma strains have long been recognized as biological agents, for the control of plant disease and for their ability to increase root growth and development, crop productivity, resistance to abiotic stresses, and uptake and use of nutrients.
In the district Kannauj the potato scab is the major problem towards increasing the crop productivity. Farmers were applying carbendazim for seed treatment at the time of sowing for it’s managements. But the problem could not be solved and crops yield and quality was deteriorating. Keep in mind the above problem, the scientists of KVK introduced the bioagent Trichoderma spp. @ 2.5 kg /ha after 15 days composing in the 200 kg well rotted FYM and mixed in soil at the time of field preparation and seeds were also treated @ 5g/kg seed in year 2010-11 with demonstrations on 18 farmer,s field on an area of 5.0 ha to. Further this experiment was also conducted regularly till dates. The results of each year are summerized in the table 1. In the demonstrated field of potato the Trichoderma reduced the incidence of common scab disease up to 69 % and enhance the yield by 9.5 to 16.30 % in the demonstration years over untreated plots.
Several extension activities like training, field days, gosthies, media coverage, etc. were organized for greater adoption of technology. Now the farmers are appreciating, accepting and adopting this technology. The expansion of this technology is increasing day by day in the district.
|Year||No of Village||No of Farmers||Area (ha)|
The existing cropping system in district Kannauj is Maize-potato-Maize, Maize-potato-groundnut, Groundnut-potato-vegetables, Rice-Wheat, Maize-mustard-wheat, etc. The insects like termites and white grubs are very common in these crops. The termites and white grubs are posing serious threat to the crops in particular upland and rainfed system. These insects not only harm to the crop but also cause heavy losses to the farmers in terms of rupees. According to an estimate that more than 35000 ha area are badly affected with incidence of termites and white grubs, which cause an annual loss of Rs. 5-10 crores to the farmers. To mitigate these losses, The scientists of the KVK organized trainings, gosthis, farm trials and front line demonstrations.
Character of Technology
Termite and white grub incidence was increasing in the maize-potato-groundnut cropping system day by days due to wrong cultural practices. So that yield is decreasing. The management of the termites and white grubs is challenging in the recent past. In spite of the integrated approach with feasible management options with chemical, biological and cultural methods, both termites and white grubs are posing serious threat to the crops in particular upland and rainfed system. To mitigate this problem, KVK Kannauj conducted trainings, OFTs and Demonstrations for the management of termite and white grub through chemicals as well as biopesticides at adopted villages in maize and groundnut. In chemical management technology the on farm trial was conducted to find out suitable chemical for the management of termite in maize. Application of chloropyriphos @ 4.0 l/ha and application of bifenthrin @ 750 ml/ha are at par in controlling the termite in maize while in groundnut the chemical as well as the biological method was tested with the Application of chloropyriphos @ 4 l/ha and application of Beauveria bassiana @ 5.0 kg/ha after 15 days composing in the 200 kg well rotted FYM and mixed in soil at the time of field preparation and crop sown. The chemical cholorpyriphos has been further used for demonstration and promotion for the management of termite and white grub due to its easily availability and feasibility.
Table1.: Performance of chemical on yield of maize
|Treatments||Yield (q/ha)||% Increase over FP||Gross Cost (Rs.)||Gross Income (Rs.)||Net income (Rs.)||C : B ratio|
|T1 Farmers Practices||25.65||14000||25650||11650||1 : 1.83|
|T2 Application of chloropyriphos @ 4 lit./ha.||29.40||14.62||15200||29400||14200||1 : 1.93|
|T3 Application of bifenthrin @ 750 ml/ha||31.18||22.96||15000||31180||16180||1 : 2.07|
Table2.: Performance of Chemical and bio pesticides on yield of groundnut
|Treatments||Infested Plant/m2||Yield (q/ha)||% Age Increase in Yield||Gross Cost (Rs/ha)||Gross Returns (Rs/ha)||Net Returns (Rs/ha)|
|Farmer Practice (No measures)||0.3 and 1.9 = 2.2 (9.9%)*||16.06||28875||64240||35365|
|Chlorpiriphos @ 3.5 lt/ha||0.0 and 0.3 = 0.3 (1.3%)||17.91||(11.5%)||30100 (1225)**||71640||41540 (6175)***|
|Beauveria bassiana @ 5 kg/ha||0.3 and 0.0 = 0.3 (1.3%)||18.63||(16.0%)||29875 (1000)||74520||44645 (9280)/td>|
* Figures in parenthesis indicating per cent age of plant damage which was recorded at 25 DAS and maturity
In case of maize the incidence of termite reduced from 37.25% to 15.24 % which enhance the yield up to 29.35 while in case of groundnut the white grub infestation was reduced from 45.30% to 20.56 % and enhanced the yield by 29.61 %. In this technology 42 % incidence of white grub reduced in the crop, resulting 16 per cent yield of sugar cane & other crops were increased. Several extension activities like training, field days, gosthies, media coverage, etc. were organized for greater adoption of technology.
|Year||No of Village||No of Farmers||Area (ha)|